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OAKS Review

Educational videos, lessons, and games on a BUNCH of topics!    http://www./neok12.com
 

ADAPTATIONS & NATURAL SELECTION 

EARTH'S PROCESSES

State Science Standards and What You Need to Know: 

Motion and Forces

• Descriptive rather than calculated

• Newton’s laws (inertia, acceleration, momentum) (e.g. use of vehicle seatbelts, amusement

park rides, which object would have greater momentum, soccer ball/bowling ball).

·        Vocabulary: velocity, speed, force acceleration, momentum, friction, inertia, mass, acceleration

 

Physical Properties

• State of matter, temperature, density, solubility, conductivity, magnetic, malleability,

ductility, color, freezing and boiling points, etc.

Chemical Properties

• Flammability, corrosiveness, explosiveness, oxidation, etc.

Examples of science measuring tools

• Balance, metric ruler, beaker, graduated cylinder, thermometer, conductivity probe, etc.

Qualitative understanding of density

• E.g. heavy for its size

·        Vocabulary: displacement, heterogeneous mixture, homogeneous mixture, reaction, solution,

sublimation, suspension

 

Earth’s Atmosphere

• The atmosphere of the Earth has several layers.

• The Layers of the Atmosphere have different compositions.

Past

• The current atmosphere is different than the early atmosphere of the Earth.

• The early atmosphere had no oxygen.

• Early life changed the atmosphere and the rocks of the Earth (e.g. banded iron

formations showing rust)

• Plants interact with the atmosphere and the atmosphere interacts with plants

• Animals interact with the atmosphere and the atmosphere interacts with animals.

Future

• Human civilization has an impact on the atmosphere (e.g. smog, ozone layer).

• Natural cycles change the atmosphere over long periods of time (e.g. ice ages,

warming/cooling)

·         Vocabulary: greenhouse effect, acid rain, global warming ozone depletion, stratosphere, troposphere, mesosphere, exosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere

 

Water Cycle Processes

·        Evaporation

·        Condensation

·        Cloud formation and nucleation

·        Precipitation

·        Run-off

·        Transpiration

Landforms

  • Rain shadow
  • Climate

Weather

  • Humidity, Dew point and temperature
  • Air pressure
  • Precipitation

·        Vocabulary: evaporation, condensation, precipitation, collection/runoff, rain shadow

 

 

Cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems

Relationships

• Similar cells interact to form tissues that interact to form organs that interact to form

organ systems.

• The various levels of organization can be described by their particular functions.

Interactions & Change

• Organ systems interact and change based on the activities of the organism (e.g.

running increases respiration and circulation based on muscular needs).

·        Vocabulary: skeletal system (skeleton), muscular system (muscles), digestive system (digestion,

stomach), circulatory system (heart), respiratory system (respiration, lungs), excretory system

(excretion, kidney), nervous system (brain), endocrine system, immune system, reproductive system

 

Processes of Organelles

• Organelles perform specific processes.

Cellular processes within a cell

• The organelles work together to perform cell functions (e.g. photosynthesis,

cellular respiration, osmosis/diffusion, active transport, waste removal)

• Organelles use raw materials (e.g. nutrients, water, gases, sunlight) to perform

various function.

• Cells obtain raw materials in different ways (e.g. chloroplasts help use the

energy from the sun; how cells in roots obtain water).

·         Vocabulary: nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplast/chlorophyll, glucose, cell membrane, cell

wall, cytoplasm, ribosome, protein synthesis, photosynthesis, stomata, respiration, selectively

permeable, passive transport

 

Genetics

Inherited vs. Learned Traits

• Inherited traits are those which are genetically determined while learned or acquired

traits are the result of environmental influences (example: bleached hair vs. natural hair

color).

• Inherited traits are passed along to offspring through the genetic material from

the parent generation.

 

Relationships of Genetic Expression

• Punnett squares are used as tools for the prediction of the outcomes of various

genetic crosses.

• Modification of genetic materials occurs due to an alteration of genetic material

(DNA) by such events as mutation.

• Genes, carried on chromosomes as homozygous or heterozygous allele pairs,

make up the genotype of an individual.

• Because of dominant and recessive alleles, only one of the genes may be expressed in

the phenotype.

• Some alleles may be expressed as co-dominant or blended dominant in the

offspring.

·        Vocabulary: heredity, gene/alleles, chromosome, DNA, RNA, homozygous, heterozygous

 

 

 

 

Plants and animals obtain energy and materials for

growth and metabolism

Plants Obtain Energy through Photosynthesis

• Photosynthesis involves using the energy from sunlight to power a process to combine water and carbon dioxide to produce glucose and oxygen.

• Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts which contain the photosynthetic

pigment, chlorophyll.

 

Animals Obtain Energy from Materials Consumed

• Materials may be consumed from plants or other animals.

• Digestion/absorption provides cells with energy-containing materials.

• Inside animal cells, cellular metabolism converts materials into new cell

products, such as proteins and sugars, and cellular respiration releases carbon dioxide and energy.

• Food chains/food webs (producers, consumers, scavengers, decomposers) transfer energy, originally from sunlight, to plants and animals.

·         Vocabulary: metabolism, cellular respiration

Possible learning targets: Underline the literacy component

 

Populations of Organisms

• A population is a group of organisms of a single given species.

• Population size changes with growth, stability (equilibrium), or decline.

• Carrying capacity is the population size determined by the limiting factors found in a particular habitat.

Interactions among populations can be described

• Energy interactions occur between different populations: predator, prey; producer, consumer; parasite, host.

• Relationships (beneficial, harmful, competitive, shared)

Changes in populations are related to resources

• Ecosystems consist of biotic and abiotic factors (e.g. – quantity of light & water, range of temperatures, soil composition).

• Limiting resources/factors are those that restrict the growth and size of populations, (e.g., food supply, disease, predation

·        Vocabulary: niche, food chain/web, energy pyramid, symbiosis, mutualism

 

Scientific Investigation

• Propose questions or hypotheses

• Use observations and scientific principles

• Design a scientific investigation

• Identify appropriate tools and techniques

• Collect data relevant to the question or hypothesis

Vocabulary:

• Relevant data

• accuracy

• conclusions

• control

• dependent variable

• independent variable

• modifications

• procedure

• variable

 

Results of an investigation

• Relevant data is organized and displayed (e.g. tables, graphs)

• Explanation of results is based on evidence obtained from the investigation

• Conclusions are communicated in a manner that relates to the original question or

hypothesis

Vocabulary

• evidence-based

• calculation

 

 

Validity of an investigation

• Valid scientific explanations and conclusions are based on evidence cited from the investigation

• Both the amount and quality of the evidence are important in determining

validity

Vocabulary:

• analyze

• range

• trial

 

Variables

• Investigation should deal with only one variable at a time.

• More than one variable may yield an outcome that is not clearly related to or caused byany individual variable.

• Independent variable (manipulated variable)

• Dependent variable/responding variable

Vocabulary

• variable

• control

 

Explain how energy is transferred, transformed, and conserved

Energy

• Transformation (e.g. conduction, radiation, convection)

• Transformed (e.g. mechanical energy from a river to electrical energy)

• Law of Conservation of Energy

• Potential vs. Kinetic Energy (e.g. pendulum)

·        Vocabulary: thermal, electromagnetic, sound, chemical, electrical, mechanical,

nuclear, electromagnetic, kinetic, potential, transformed, conservation of energy

 

The motion and spacing of particles determines states of matter

Particle motion

• Is related to energy

• Increased energy - increased movement - increased spacing

• Decreased energy decreased movement - decreased spacing (except water to ice)

• The closer particles are to each other the denser a substance will be.

·        Vocabulary: energy, solid, liquid, gas, density

 

 

Compare and contrast physical and chemical changes and describe how the law of

conservation of mass applies to these changes.

Physical

• Tearing paper, phase change, creating a mixture (e.g., trail mix)

Chemical

• Burning, rusting, forming compounds (e.g., baking cookies)

• Qualitative description of how mass is conserved – reactants to products

Indicators of chemical change may include:

• change in temperature

• electrical potential

• color change

• gas produced

• solid produced

• light produced

• change in smell

·        Vocabulary: conservation of mass, chemical reaction, molecular, suspension, system

 

Explain how gravity is the force that keeps objects in the solar system in regular and

predictable motion. Explain Earth’s seasons.

Gravity

• Law of Gravitation

• Orbiting objects

Seasons

• Axis tilt

• Differential heating

• Equinox and Solstice

• Length of Daylight

• Directness of Sunlight

Earth/Moon Cycles

• Lunar and Solar Eclipses

• Tides

• Rotation

• Revolution

• Moon Phases

·        Vocabulary: gravity, earth’s axis, rotation, revolution, seasons, eclipses, phases, eclipse, equator, hemisphere, latitude

 

 

Atomic Model

• Particles in an atom and where they are located (i.e., electrons orbit around a

nucleus of protons and neutrons)

• Different atoms have different numbers of particles and different atomic masses.

Qualitative description of bonding

• The outermost electrons are involved to join atoms together.

• Different numbers of atoms join together to create different compounds (e.g.

oxygen joins with 2 hydrogen to form a new compound with different properties

than the original elements, sodium + chlorine = salt).

·        Vocabulary: nucleus, proton, neutron, electron, electron cloud, chemical

properties, elements, compounds, molecule, atomic mass

 

 

Periodic Table

• A tool for organizing elements based on properties and characteristics

• Metal/nonmetals/metalloids are areas on the Periodic Table and those elements share common characteristics.

• Noble gases are stable elements.

• Atomic number gives us information about the atom.

• Atomic mass is an average mass of the isotopes of that type of atom.

• Rows and columns have meaning.

·        Vocabulary: metal, non-metal, metalloid, family, period, isotope, atomic mass,

atomic number, noble gases

 

Earth’s Processes

Rock Cycle

Igneous Rocks

Sedimentary Rocks

Metamorphic Rocks

Plate Tectonics

Continental Drift

Sea Floor Spreading

Lithospheric (crustal) Plates

Plate Boundaries (constructive, destructive)

Convection currents

Volcanoes

Patterns

Causes

Earthquakes

Stresses

Seismic wave

Fault zones

Effects

Mountain Building

Uplift

Folded Mountains

Fault block Mountains

Volcanic

·        Vocabulary: crust, mantle, lithosphere, divergent boundary, convergent boundary, transformed boundary, ridges/trenches, faults, subduction, continental drift, Pangaea, convection, cementation, crystallization, fossilization, magnetic reversals, metamorphism, minerals, plateau

 

 

Species Change as a Result of Natural Selection

• Variations occur in the population of a species through changes in their genetic

material (DNA on chromosomes).

• More offspring are produced than can survive due to limiting factors in their

environment.

• Natural selection factors, such as changes in environment, food supply,

predators, or disease, will select for those individuals of the species best able to

survive, and these, in turn, will pass along their genetics to their offspring.

Example: when antibiotics are applied to a population of bacteria, most of the

bacteria die, but some are resistant to the antibiotic and pass on this resistance to

their offspring.

• Failure of a species to have variations needed for survival under changing

conditions can lead to extinction.

·         Vocabulary: natural selection, variation, evolution, adaptation, species, homologous

structures, adaptation, niche, random